Abstract：The limited nature of water resources and the cyclical nature of renewability decide that the scale of social and economic support of water resources in any area has an impossible threshold, that is, the carrying capacity of water resources is upper bound. Nowadays, the excessive consumption of water resources and the way of development based on environment and resources make the development of many cities and regions restricted by water resources. As an important link of resource, environment and economic society, the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure is an important way to improve the carrying capacity of water resources. Under this background, it is of great practical significance to discuss how to adjust the industrial structure and development mode, achieve the best coordination of water resources and make the water resources play the biggest economic and ecological value. This paper summarized the research background and research status of force and industrial structure optimization of water resources carrying, discusses the current research on water resources carrying capacity in the existing problems and future research direction, pointed out that the industrial structure and the close relationship between the water resources carrying capacity, mutual connection, mutual restraint, has important practical significance to study on qualitative and quantitative analysis and practical application of the relationship between the two. This paper selects the Songhua River basin as the study area, using Daosuan method to calculate the Songhua River basin and three sub basins of the available water resources in the basin can be calculated in 2030, all kinds of water demand by water on the basis of using the conventional trend method, quota area method, finally get the bearing capacity of river basin water resources economic scale and population. The largest scale of social economy in 2030 that river basin can be carrying 73778 billion yuan, the population limit carrying 72 million 660 thousand people; the water resources carrying capacity calculation results for the parameters, construct a multi-objective optimization model, to optimize the structure of industry in 2030, the scheme selection, and puts forward some suggestions on the overall development of key the layout of the future development of the basin and the three industries.